WEN Yue,WANG Zhenhua.极端干旱区滴灌葡萄耗水特征及水肥制度寻优[J].灌溉排水学报,2022,41(1):1-8.
【打印本页】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 741次   下载 721 本文二维码信息
分享到: 微信 更多
温越, 王振华
1.石河子大学 水利建筑工程学院,新疆 石河子 832000; 2.现代节水灌溉兵团重点实验室,新疆 石河子 832000
【目的】探寻极端干旱区无核白葡萄的适宜水肥制度。【方法】在萌芽期充分供水条件下,以全生育期充分灌溉为对照(CK),设置新梢生长期(W1)、开花期(W2)、果实膨大期(W3)、着色成熟期(W4)4个亏水处理(θf=65%~90%),同时设置3个施肥配比,分别为:N施量、P2O5施量、K2O施量为275.0、275.0、275.0 kg/hm2(F1),235.7、235.7、353.6 kg/hm2(F2),330.0、165.0、330.0 kg/hm2(F3),共15个处理,研究了不同水肥配比对滴灌葡萄产量、品质和耗水特征的影响。【结果】灌水是影响土壤含水率的主要因素,果实膨大期调亏灌溉土壤含水率波动最明显;在果实膨大期进行调亏灌溉,会造成大幅减产和品质降低,而在着色成熟期进行调亏灌溉对产量影响不显著,且可以显著提高还原性糖量和可溶性固形物量,F2施肥处理产量、还原性糖量和可溶性固形物量均达到最大值。CKF2处理产量最大,为28 003 kg/hm2,W4F2处理产量与最大处理无显著差异,但还原性糖量和可溶性固形物量取得最大值,分别为23.00%和23.50%,W3F3处理产量和还原性糖量最低,较CKF2处理和W4F2处理降低34.29%和28.70%。果实膨大期是无核白葡萄的需水关键期,调亏灌溉会大幅降低生育期耗水强度和耗水量,耗水强度和耗水量随氮肥施用增加而逐渐增大。【结论】W4F2处理,即在着色成熟期进行调亏灌溉,且N施量、P2O5施量、K2O施量分别为235.7、235.7 kg/hm2和353.6 kg/hm2(F2),可作为极端干旱区无核白葡萄的适宜水肥制度。
关键词:  滴灌葡萄;产量品质;耗水特征;水肥制度
Water Consumption and Fertigation Optimization of Drip-irrigated Grape in Arid Regions
WEN Yue, WANG Zhenhua
1. College of Water & Architectural Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Modern Water-saving Irrigation of Xinjiang Production & Construction Group, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832000, China
【Background and Objective】Tuha in Xinjiang province is one of the most important grape production bases in China, but the crop relies on irrigation and fertilization due to the aridity of this region. Understanding the mechanisms underlying water use of the grape and optimizing its fertigation is hence critical to its sustainable production but is currently lacking. The purpose of this paper is to fill this knowledge gap.【Method】The field experiment imposed deficit irrigation by controlling soil water content within 65%~90% of the field capacity at shoot growth (W1), flowering (W2), berry growth (W3) and berry mature stages (W4), respectively, with sufficient irrigation taken as the control (CK). Each irrigation treatment had three fertilizations: applying N, P2O5 and K2O at 275.0, 275.0 kg/hm2 and 275.0 kg/hm2 (F1), 235.7, 235.7 kg/hm2 and 353.6 kg/hm2 (F2), and 330.0, 165.0 kg/hm2 and 330.0 kg/hm2 (F3), respectively.【Result】Irrigation mediated soil water content, especially the deficit irrigation during the fruit expansion stage. Thirsting the crop at the fruit-expansion stage reduced its yield and fruit quality. In contrast, imposing deficit irrigation at the berry-mature stage not only kept the yield unchanged, but also increased the content of both reduced-sugar and soluble solids. The combination CK+ F2 gave the highest yield at 28 003 kg/hm2; there was no significant difference in the yield between W4+F2 and CK+F2. W4+F2 gave the highest contents of reduced-sugar and soluble solids, being 23.00 g/L and 23.50 g/L, respectively. The yield and contents of reduced-sugar were the lowest in W3+F3, down by 34.29% and 28.70%, compared to that in CKF2 and W4F2, respectively. The grape was mostly water-demanding in the fruit-expansion stage, and imposing deficit irrigation in this period reduced its water consumption rate and total water consumption, especially when nitrogen fertilization was high.【Conclusion】Of all treatments, imposing a deficit irrigation at coloring and maturity stage, coupled with fertilization of N, P2O5 and K2O at 235.7, 235.7, 353.6 kg/hm2, was optimal for saving water without resulting a detrimental impact on its yield while in the meantime improving fruit quality. It can be used as an improved cultivation for grapes grown in arid regions in Xinjiang province.
Key words:  drip irrigation; grape; yield and quality; water consumption; fertigation optimization