Zhou Qingyun,Li Mengchu,Qi Dongliang.拔节期淹水条件下施氮量对春玉米生理特性和产量的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,,():-.
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周青云, 李梦初, 漆栋良
【目的】研究拔节期淹水胁迫下不同施氮水平对春玉米叶片的生理特性和籽粒产量的影响,为湿润地区玉米的抗渍栽培提供理论依据。【方法】采用大田试验,以春玉米“宜单629”为供试材料,2因素裂区试验设计,主处理为土壤水分状况,包括全生育期适宜水分(WW处理)和拔节期淹水6 天(WL处理)(保持水层3~5 cm);副处理为施氮水平,包括0、90、180、270和360 kg N/hm2,分别记作N0、N1、N2、N3和N4。测定了春玉米叶片SPAD值、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、丙二醛(MDA)量、光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、气孔导度(Gs)和成熟期籽粒产量。【结果】任一施氮水下,与WW处理相比,WL处理显著降低拔节-乳熟期的玉米叶片SPAD值、淹水结束当天及以后第15 天和35 天穗位叶叶片的SOD、POD、CAT活性、Pn、Tr、Gs和籽粒产量。随着施氮量的增加,WW处理下施氮量为N0~N3时SOD、POD、CAT活性、Pn、Tr、Gs和籽粒产量增加,而N4下下降(SPAD值除外);而WL处理下SOD、POD、CAT活性、Pn、Tr、Gs和籽粒产量均增加,N4提高玉米叶片的抗氧化酶活性、光合参数和籽粒产量。但MDA量的变化趋势则与之相反。【结论】拔节期淹水胁迫下增施氮肥(360 kg N/hm2)有利于改善春玉米叶片的生理特性,从而提高其籽粒产量。
关键词:  施氮量;拔节期渍水;抗氧化酶活性;光合作用;产量;玉米
Effects of nitrogen rate on physiological characteristics and grain yield of spring maize under waterlogging at jointing stage
Zhou Qingyun, Li Mengchu, Qi Dongliang
Yangtze University
【Objective】 Nitrogen (N) fertilizer supply and use play a vital role in determining crop growth and yield, even under waterlogging. However, the effects of N supply levels on plant growth under waterlogging conditions remain elusive. Thus, we investigated the effect of N fertilizer rates on physiological characteristics and grain yield of maize under waterlogging at the sixth-leaf (V6) stage. 【Method】 A field experiment was conducted at Jingzhou, Hubei Province of central China in 2018, where crop growth and development are susceptible to waterlogging or flooding stress due to frequent and heavy rainfall during crop growing season. Using maize (Zea mays L.) with variety of ‘Yidan 629’ as target experimental plant. A split-plot experiment was designed; the main plot was water regime, which included well-water supply through the whole growth stage of maize (WW) and waterlogging for 6 days with 3-5 cm layer of water at the surface of soil at the V6 stage of maize (WL). The subplot was N rate, which included 0, 90, 180, 270, and 360 kg/hm2, designated N0, N1, N2, N3 and N4, respectively. Leaf SPAD values during the V6 to milking (R4) stages, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) at the end and after of the WL, grain yield at the maturity (R6) stage were determined. 【Result】The results showed that, compared to the WW, the WL significantly reduced the chlorophyll SPAD value, SOD, POD and catalase CAT activities, Pn, Tr and Gs in leaves at 0, 15 and 35 d after waterlogging treatment and grain yield in each N rate. With the increase in N rate, the SOD, POD and catalase CAT activities, Pn, Tr and Gs significantly increased up to N3 and then obviously decreased at N4 under the WW (excluded SPAD values) and significantly increased up to N4 under WL. Compared to the other N treatments, N4 resulted in a greater SOD, POD and activities, Pn, Tr and Gs and thereby produce a higher grain yield under the WL. The enhanced SOD, POD and activities, Pn, Tr and Gs could be related to high soil available N content at a high N rate (N4). However, the MDA content decreased with the increase in N rate under the WL. The MDA content decreased with the increase in N application rate up to N3 then increased at the N4 under the WW. Under the WW, grain yield in N1, N2, N3, and N4 was 8.63%, 23.91%, 42.92% and 29.95% greater compared to N0, respectively. The corresponding values under WL treatment were 20.21%, 31.86%, 52.55% and 57.03%, respectively.【Conclusion】Thus, proper added application of nitrogen fertilizer (360 kg N/hm2) favor to improve the physiological characteristics, resulting in a high grain yield of maize under waterlogging at the V6 stage in the studied area. These results should provide some scientific basis on nitrogen management for maize in the Jianghan Plain of China and other regions with similar environments.
Key words:  nitrogen rate; waterlogging at the V6; antioxidant enzyme activities; photosynthesis; grain yield; maize