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引用本文:马建涛,陈玉章,程宏波,等.覆盖方式对旱地不同熟性马铃薯土壤水热特征和产量的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
majiantao,chenyuzhang,chenghongbo,et al.覆盖方式对旱地不同熟性马铃薯土壤水热特征和产量的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
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覆盖方式对旱地不同熟性马铃薯土壤水热特征和产量的影响
马建涛1, 陈玉章1, 程宏波2, 兰雪梅1, 李亚伟1, 李瑞1, 柴雨葳1, 常磊1, 柴守玺1
1.甘肃省干旱生境作物学重点实验室/甘肃农业大学农学院;2.甘肃农业大学生命科学与技术学院
摘要:
【目的】深入了解西北半干旱雨养条件下不同覆盖种植方式对马铃薯产量和土壤水热的影响。【方法】通过大田试验研究了不同覆盖方式(玉米整秆带状覆盖平作:SM,黑膜双垄沟覆盖:PM,露地平作:CK)对当地典型早熟“LK99”、中熟“克新1号”和晚熟“青薯9号”马铃薯土壤水热状况、产量及水分利用效率的影响。【结果】与CK相比,覆盖(SM,PM)可显著降低各品种马铃薯全生育期耗水量11.0%~19.0%,平均分别提高早、中、晚熟马铃薯出苗至成熟期0~2.0m土壤贮水量24.6、29.5和48.9mm,且SM和PM土壤贮水量在同一品种上无显著差异。早、中、晚熟马铃薯全生育期0.05~0.25m土壤平均温度,PM较CK分别提高1.6、1.6和1.4℃,而SM在各品种上均略低于(P>0.05)CK。与CK相比,覆盖可显著提高马铃薯各品种单薯鲜重和商品薯率;马铃薯干薯产量和水分利用效率(WUED)分别比CK提高21.6%~51.4%和44.2%~77.1%。SM在早、晚熟品种上取得与PM相近的产量和水分利用效率,但在中熟品种上,SM的产量和水分利用效率均显著低于PM。【结论】综合马铃薯品种熟性、水热利用状况和产量等因素,SM是一种高产高效的种植方式,但要通过马铃薯品种熟性与覆盖方式的科学搭配才能最大限度提高产量和水分利用效率。
关键词:  玉米整杆带状覆盖;地膜覆盖;马铃薯;土壤水热;产量
DOI:
分类号:S512.11
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Effects of different mulching methods on soil moisture-temperature and tuber yield of potato cultivars with different maturities
majiantao1, chenyuzhang1, chenghongbo2, lanxuemei1, liyawei1, lirui1, chaiyuwei1, changlei1, chaishouxi1
1.Gansu Agricultural University College of Agronomy;2.Gansu Agricultural University College of Bioscience and Technology
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to understand deeply the effects of different mulching patterns on soil moisture and temperature and tuber yield of potato cultivars with different maturities under semiarid rain-fed ecosystem.【Methods】The effects of different mulching materials(whole maize straw strips mulching: SM, plastic film mulching: PM, traditional flat-planting (CK))on soil water and heat status, tuber yield and water use efficiency of potato in local typical representative cultivars of very early (EMC, LK99), medium-early (MMC, Kexin 1) and late maturity (LMC, Qingshu 9) were studied by field experiment.【Results】Compared with CK, both SM and PM treatments significantly reduced the water consumption of all cultivars of potato during the whole growth stage by 11.0%~19.0%, and the soil water storage of SM and PM increased by 24.6, 29.5 and 48.9 mm on average from the EMC, MMC and LMC, respectively, and there was no significant in soil water storage between SM and PM in the same potato cultivar. Compared with CK, PM significantly increased the average soil temperature of 0.05~0.25m soil layer during the whole growth stage of EMC, MMC and LMC by 1.6, 1.6 and 1.4 ℃, while SM was slightly (P>0.05) lower than that CK in all potato cultivars. Compared with CK, SM and PM significantly increased the fresh weight of single tuber and commodity rate in all potato cultivars, and thus the drying tuber yield of all potato cultivars and water use efficiency (WUED) were 21.6%~51.4% and 44.2%~77.1% higher than that of CK, respectively. SM achieved similar tuber yield and WUED as PM in EMC and LMC, but in MMC, both tuber yield and WUED of SM were significantly lower than PM.【Conclusion】Based on factors such as potato cultivar maturity, soil thermal-moisture utilization and tuber yield of potato, SM is a kind of clean production mode with high-yield and high-efficiency, but the yield and WUED can be improved as much as possible through the scientific combination of potato cultivars maturity and mulching methods.
Key words:  whole maize straw strips mulching;plastic film mulching;potato;soil moisture-temperature;tuber yield.