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引用本文:庄旭东,冯绍元,于昊,等.暗管排水条件下土壤水盐运移SWAP模型模拟[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
ZHUANG Xudong,FENG Shaoyuan,YU Hao,et al.暗管排水条件下土壤水盐运移SWAP模型模拟[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
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暗管排水条件下土壤水盐运移SWAP模型模拟
庄旭东, 冯绍元, 于昊, 袁成福, 钱争
扬州大学 水利科学与工程学院
摘要:
摘 要:【目的】研究内蒙古河套灌区暗管排水条件下作物根系层水分通量和盐分通量变化,寻求适宜当地的农田排水暗管规格。【方法】基于2018年和2019年田间试验的观测数据,对SWAP模型进行率定和验证,并利用该模型对不同暗管埋深(1.5、2.0 m)和间距(30、45 m)下的40 cm土壤剖面处水分通量和盐分通量进行数值模拟。【结果】(1)存在灌水和降雨时,40 cm土壤剖面的水分通量向下,在暗管间距为45 m,埋深为1.5 m时,就2019年整个生育期而言,暗管间距减小15 m,向下的水分通量累积量增加5.2%,暗管埋深增加0.5 m时,向下的水分通量累积量增加83.9%;没有灌水和降雨时,40 cm剖面处的土壤水分通量以向上为主,暗管埋深和间距的变化对向上的水分通量影响不大,向上的水分通量在0 ~ 0.14 cm/d之间变动。(2)土壤盐分通量变化趋势和水分通量一致,在暗管间距为45 m,埋深为1.5 m时,就2019年整个生育期而言,暗管间距减小15 m,向下盐分通量累积量增加5.1%,暗管埋深增加0.5 m时,向下盐分通量累积量增加82.6%,增幅与向下水分通量累积量基本一致,且暗管埋深的变化对向下的盐分通量影响较明显。【结论】合适的暗管布设埋深和间距有助于土壤根系层的排水脱盐,其中暗管埋深对排除土壤盐分的影响更为明显,综合考虑不同暗管布局的排水排盐效果以及对产量的影响,认为当地暗管埋深取2.0 m,暗管间距取45 m较为适宜。
关键词:  SWAP模型;暗管排水;油葵;土壤水盐动态
DOI:
分类号:S276.1
基金项目:
Simulation of soil water-salt transport in subsurface drainage field with SWAP model
ZHUANG Xudong, FENG Shaoyuan, YU Hao, YUAN Chengfu, QIAN Zheng
College of Hydraulic Science and Engineering,Yangzhou University
Abstract:
Abstract:【Background】Hetao Irrigation District in Inner Mongolia, the largest gravity irrigation district in Asia, is an important commodity grain base in China. The irrigation water from the Yellow River plays an important role in the agricultural production of Hetao Irrigation District. The agricultural irrigation water accounts for about 90% of the total water consumption in Hetao Irrigation District. It's a typical irrigation district where there is no agriculture without irrigation. Facing serious water resources shortage, our country limited the amount of water drawn from the Yellow River in Hetao Irrigation District, which aggravated the contradiction of water use in various industries. Meanwhile, the soil salinization is very serious in Hetao Irrigation District. With the application of water-saving irrigation technology and subsurface drainage technology, the original transport rule and balance conditions of soil water and salt have been broken. Therefore, it is of great significance to study soil water-salt transport in subsurface drainage field and optimize the depth and spacing of buried pipes in Hetao Irrigation District for ensuring agricultural production, improving local ecological environment and sustainable development of local national economy.【Objective】The changes of soil water flux and salinity flux in the root layer in subsurface drainage field was studied in Hetao Irrigation District in this research.【Method】The SWAP (Soil-water-atmosphere-plant) model was calibrated and validated with the field experiment data in 2018 and 2019, such as water content, salinity, leaf area index, plant height and soil texture. And the model was used to simulate soil water and salt fluxes of 40cm soil profile under different buried depth (1.5 m, 2.0 m) and spacing (30 m, 45 m). 【Result】(1) The results showed that SWAP model could better reflect the change tendency of the measured values at the process of soil water-salt calibration and validation. When there were irrigation and rainfall, the soil water flux was downward in soil profile with 40 cm in depth. For the whole growing period in 2019, the initial distance between the underground pipes was 45m and the initial buried depth was 1.5m. When the distance between the underground pipes decreased by 15 m, and the downward water flux cumulant increased by 5.2% and when the buried depth of the underground pipes increased by 0.5 m, the downward water flux cumulant increased by 83.9%. When there were no irrigation and rainfall, the soil water flux was mainly upward in soil profile with 40 cm in depth, and the change of buried depth and spacing of the underground pipe had little effect on the upward soil water flux, and the simulation results vary from 0 to 0.14 cm/d. (2) The change trend of soil salt flux was consistent with the soil water flux. For the whole growing period in 2019, the initial distance between the underground pipes was 45 m and the initial buried depth was 1.5 m. When the distance between the underground pipes decreased by 15m, and the downward salt flux cumulant increased by 5.1% and when the buried depth of the dark pipes increased by 0.5m, the downward salt flux cumulant increased by 82.6%. In addition, the change of the buried depth has obvious effect on the downward salt flux. Without the irrigation and rainfall, the soil salt flux at 40 cm profile was mainly upward, and the change of buried depth and spacing of the underground pipe also had little effect on the upward soil salt flux. 【Conclusion】The SWAP model can be used to simulate the changes of water and salt in local farmland. Increasing the depth and distance of the underground pipes were helpful to desalt the soil root layer and increase the crop yield. Considering the effect of water drainage and salt drainage and crop yield under different buried depths and spacing of underground pipes, the depth of underground pipes is 2.0m and the spacing of underground pipes is 45m.
Key words:  SWAP model; Subsurface pipe drainage; Helianthus; Soil water-salt dynamics