caoleiqi,ZHAI Yaming,HUANG Mingyi,et al.不同水氮条件下生物炭对夏玉米水氮耦合效应的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
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曹磊齐, 翟亚明, 黄明逸, 朱成立, 张帆, 徐雨琳
摘要:【目的】探究不同水氮条件下生物炭对砂壤土持水保肥效果以及夏玉米水氮耦合效应的影响。【方法】进行了不同水氮条件(正常灌溉+常规施氮(W100N100),正常灌溉+亏缺施氮(W100N50),亏缺灌溉+常规施氮(W50N100),亏缺灌溉+亏缺施氮(W50N50),其中W100为100%作物需水量,W50为50%作物需水量,N100为常规施氮量200 kg/hm2,N50为亏缺施氮量100 kg/hm2)和生物炭水平(B0,B5,B10,B15,即0、5、10、15 t/hm2)的田间小区试验。【结果】5和10 t/hm2生物炭明显提高了土壤总孔隙度和持水能力,并减少了对土壤铵态氮和硝态氮的淋洗,10 t/hm2下效果最佳。同时,5和10 t/hm2生物炭可促进夏玉米根系生长,提高籽粒产量及水氮利用效率,在10 t/hm2下产量,水分利用效率和氮素偏生产力比未施炭组分别增加了6.74%~13.12%,9.84%~19.48%和6.74%~13.12%。然而,生物炭添加至15 t/hm2时增益效果有所下降。此外,生物炭有利于促进水氮协同效应,进一步提高了减水减氮条件下籽粒产量及水氮利用效率。在10 t/hm2生物炭下,W100N50处理产量和水分利用效率较0 t/hm2W100N100处理分别增加了13.12%和16.93%,W50N50处理产量和氮素偏生产力与0 t/hm2W100N50处理间差异不显著,且W50N50处理产量较0 t/hm2时增产12.84%,较0t/hm2W100N100处理仅减产5.60%。【结论】10 t/hm2生物炭能够在水氮亏缺下有效地提高水氮利用效率,进而达到保产增效目的,且10 t/hm2生物炭与水分充足减氮50%处理的增产效果最好,可作为夏玉米生产中节水节肥的有效途径。
关键词:  生物炭;水氮耦合;持水能力;根系生长;产量
Cao Leiqi,Zhai Yaming,Huang Mingyi,Zhu chengli, Zhang Fan,Xu Yulin.Effect of biochar on water and nitrogen coupling effect in summer corn under different water and nitrogen conditions
caoleiqi, ZHAI Yaming, HUANG Mingyi, ZHU Chengli, ZHANG Fan, XU Yulin
College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hohai University
Abstract: 【Backgrund】Water and nitrogen are the main factors determining high crop yields; water is the medium for soil nutrient dissolution and the carrier for crop nutrient delivery, and nitrogen promotes water uptake by crops and enhances their drought resistance. Due to the excessive pursuit of yield, the phenomenon of irrational irrigation and fertilization is becoming more and more serious, which not only fails to achieve the effect of yield increase and causes the waste of water resources, but also brings a series of environmental problems. Studies have shown that biochar, as a soil amendment in agricultural production, can promote the growth of crops under conditions of water deficit or poor soil fertility, promote the uptake of water and nitrogen by crops, and thus increase yields. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of biochar on crop productivity under water and nitrogen reduction in order to achieve sustainable agricultural development.【Objectives】To investigate the effect of biochar on water and fertilizer holding effect of sandy loam soil and water and nitrogen coupling effect of summer maize under different water and nitrogen conditions. 【Methods】Different water and nitrogen conditions (normal irrigation + conventional N application (W100N100), normal irrigation + deficit N application (W100N50), deficit irrigation + conventional N application (W50N100), deficit irrigation + deficit N application (W50N50), where W100 is 100% crop water requirement, W50 is 50% crop water requirement, N100 is conventional N application at 200 kg/hm2, N50 is deficit N application at 100 kg/hm2) and biochar levels (B0, B5, B10, B15, which is 0, 5, 10, 15 t/hm2) in the field plot trials.【Results】5 and 10 t/hm2 biochar significantly improved total soil porosity and water holding capacity, and reduced leaching of soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, with the best effect at 10 t/hm2. Meanwhile, 5 and 10 t/hm2 biochar promoted summer maize root growth, seed yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency. Yield, water use efficiency and nitrogen bias productivity increased by 6.74% to 13.12%, 9.84% to 19.48% and 6.74% to 13.12%, respectively, at 10 t/hm2 compared with the uncharred group. However, the gain effect decreased when biochar was added to 15 t/hm2. In addition, biochar facilitated the synergistic effect of water and nitrogen, which further improved the seed yield and water and nitrogen utilization efficiency under water and nitrogen reduction conditions. Under 10 t/hm2 biochar, the yield and water use efficiency of treatment W100N50 increased by 13.12% and 16.93%, respectively, compared with treatment 0 t/hm2 W100N100. The differences in yield and nitrogen bias productivity between treatment W50N50 and treatment 0 t/hm2 W100N50 were not significant, and the yield of treatment W50N50 increased by 12.84% compared with that at 0 t/hm2 and decreased by only 5.60% compared with treatment 0 t/hm2 W100N100. 【Conclusions】10 t/hm2 biochar can effectively improve water and nitrogen utilization efficiency under water and nitrogen deficit, and then promote yield increase, and the yield increase effect of 10 t/hm2 biochar and water sufficient nitrogen reduction 50% treatment is the largest, which can be an effective way to save water and fertilizer in summer maize production.
Key words:  Keywords: biochar; water and nitrogen coupling; water holding capacity; root growth; yield