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引用本文:崔光旭,朱文东,李二珍,等.河套灌区盐碱地咸水滴灌食葵播种模式探究[J].灌溉排水学报,2022,():-.
CUI Guangxu,ZHU Wendong,LI Erzhen,et al.河套灌区盐碱地咸水滴灌食葵播种模式探究[J].灌溉排水学报,2022,():-.
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河套灌区盐碱地咸水滴灌食葵播种模式探究
崔光旭,朱文东,李二珍,等
1.中国科学院 地理科学与资源研究所陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室 北京;2.中国科学院大学 北京;3.五原县农牧业技术推广中心 内蒙古自治区 巴彦淖尔市;4.五原县科学与技术服务中心 内蒙古自治区 巴彦淖尔市;5.五原县农牧和科技局 内蒙古自治区 巴彦淖尔市;6.通辽市气象局 内蒙古自治区 通辽市
摘要:
【目的】为明确河套灌区盐碱地咸水滴灌条件下适宜的播种深度、种穴覆盖方式和造墒水盐调控初次灌溉水量等关键参数,提出与盐碱地咸水滴灌相适的食葵种植模式。【方法】本研究布置了4个播种深度(2、4、6和8 cm)、3个造墒水盐调控初次灌溉水量(21、28和35 mm)和2个种穴覆盖方式(覆沙、不覆沙)的田间试验,分析了以上种植农艺措施处理对食葵出苗率和幼苗生长状况的影响。【结果】(1)随着播种深度的增加,最终出苗率先增加后降低,播种深度在4 cm时最终出苗率最高,达到93%;随着播种深度的增加,幼苗地上部分生物量逐渐减小,地下部分生物量逐渐增大。(2)初次灌溉水量为28和35 mm对播种深度小于4 cm的出苗率影响不大,大于4 cm时灌溉35 mm出苗率最高,随着灌溉水量增加,根系周围土体脱盐效果越好,21、28和35 mm灌水量处理下0~10 cm土层土壤平均脱盐率分别为37.5%、54%和62%。(3)播种后种穴覆沙比不覆沙出苗率高53%,不覆沙的种子上层土壤容易板结,出苗率低。【结论】在内蒙古河套灌区等水资源匮乏的重度盐碱地地区,咸水滴灌条件下食葵种植可以采用播种深度为4 cm,初次灌水量为28 mm,种穴表层覆沙的种植模式,既能节约水资源又能保证食葵高出苗率。
关键词:  食葵;播种模式;咸水;盐碱地;盐分淋洗
DOI:
分类号:S275.6;S352.4
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0501305);国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0501304);中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDJ-SSW-DQC028)
Sunflower Seeding Pattern in Hetao Irrigation Area of Saline Water Drip Irrigation in Saline-alkali Land
CUI Guangxu1,2,3,2,4,2,5,2,6,2,7,2, ZHU Wendong1, LI Erzhen4, MIAO Junxia5, LI Jianzhong6, LI Wei7, LI Xiaobin1, WAN Shuqin1
1.Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes,Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS;2.China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;4.Wuyuan County Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Technology Promotion Center,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region;5.Wuyuan County Science and Technology Service Center,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region;6.Wuyuan County Agriculture and animal Husbandry and science and Technology Bureau,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region;7.Tongliao Meteorological Bureau,Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to clarify the key parameters such as suitable seeding depth, hole covering mode and first irrigation amount of soil moisture under saline water drip irrigation in saline and alkaline land in hetao irrigation area, the cultivation mode of sunflower suitable for saline water drip irrigation in saline and alkali land was proposed.【Method】The field experiments of three kinds of treatment for this study, including four sowing depth (2, 4, 6, and 8 cm), three water and salt regulation first irrigation water quantity (21, 28 and 35 mm) and two kinds of hole cover means (coated sand, sieved sand), and this paper analyzes the above grow agronomic measures to deal with effects on food kwai germination rate and seedling growth.【Result】(1) With the increase of sowing depth, the final seedling emergence rate firstly increased and then decreased, and the highest seedling emergence rate reached 93% when the sowing depth was 4 cm. With the increase of sowing depth, the aboveground biomass of seedlings decreased and the underground biomass increased. (2) The initial irrigation water amount of 28 and 35 mm had little effect on the seedling emergence rate of seeding depth less than 4 cm. When the irrigation amount was greater than 4 cm, the seedling emergence rate was the highest at 35 mm. With the increase of irrigation amount, the desalinization effect of soil around the root was better, and the average desalinization rates in 0-10 cm soil layer were 37.5%, 54% and 62%, respectively. (3) After sowing, the seedling emergence rate of the seed hole with sand cover was 53% higher than that without sand cover. The soil on the top of the seed without sand cover was easy to harden and the seedling emergence rate was low.【Conclusion】In Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation Area and other heavily saline-alkali land areas where water resources are scarce, it is recommended to adopt the sowing mode with the sowing depth of 4 cm, the initial irrigation amount of 28 mm (saline water), and the planting hole covered with fine sand. It can not only save water resources but also ensure high emergence rate of eating sunflower.
Key words:  sunflower; seeding mode; saline water; saline-alkali land; salt-leaching