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引用本文:柳斌辉,王变银,陈朝阳,等.春一水灌溉时间对冬小麦产量和生长特性的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,,():-.
LIU Binhui,WANG Bianyin,CHEN Zhaoyang,et al.春一水灌溉时间对冬小麦产量和生长特性的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,,():-.
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春一水灌溉时间对冬小麦产量和生长特性的影响
柳斌辉,王变银,陈朝阳,等
1.河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所/河北省农作物抗旱研究重点实验室;2.河北省农林科学院旱作农业研究所
摘要:
【目的】探索海河平原区最佳春一水灌溉时间,挖掘节水灌溉制度下冬小麦产量潜力。【方法】通过田间小区试验,以冬小麦品种‘衡0628’为研究对象,设置5个春灌一水时间处理(3月15日,a1;3月20日,a2;3月25日,a3;3月30日,a4;4月4日,a5)和1个对照处理(春灌二水),分析了不同处理对冬小麦产量和生长特性的影响。【结果】3月31日~4月2日有效降雨为42.0mm。春灌一水条件下,灌浆期SPAD值、净光合速率(Pn)随着灌水时期的推迟呈现先升高后降低,其中a3最高,在灌浆后期SPAD值和Pn显著高于其他处理(P<0.05),与CK差异不显著。春灌一水条件下,a3在花后12d至27d的平均灌浆速率最高,为1.98mg/d,且在花后27天灌浆速率仍高于其他处理。春灌一水条件下,花期之前冬小麦地上部生物量随着灌溉时期后移逐渐减少,a3灌浆中期和收获期地上部生物量显著高于其他处理,与CK差异不显著,a3花前干物质转运量和花后干物质积累量为春灌一水各处理中最高。冬小麦单位面积穗数、穗粒数和籽粒产量随着灌水时间的推迟均是先增大后减小,其中a3显著高于其他春灌一水处理,a3、a4、a5千粒重显著高于a1、a2;a3水分利用效率(WUE)和灌溉水利用效率(WUEI)显著高于春灌一水各处理,a3水分利用效率与CK无显著差异,灌溉水利用效率显著高于CK。【结论】综合考虑有效降雨时间和春灌一水时间,在拔节期前后有有效降雨的条件下,海河平原区春灌一水应该根据降雨时间提前5-8天进行灌溉,能获得较高产量和水分利用效率。
关键词:  春一水;灌溉时间;冬小麦;产量;生长特性
DOI:
分类号:S318
基金项目:
Effect of Time of Once Irrigation in Spring on Yield and Growth Characteristics of Winter Wheat
LIU Binhui1,2,3, WANG Bianyin1,2,3, CHEN Zhaoyang1,2,3, ZHANG Wenying4
1.Dryland Farming Institute,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences;2.Key Lab of Crops Drought Resistance Reasearch of Hebei Province;3.China;4.Dryland Farming Institute,Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Exploring the best spring one-water irrigation time in the Haihe Plain and exploring the yield potential of winter wheat under water-saving irrigation systems.【Method】Through a field plot experiment, five spring one-water irrigation time treatments (March 15, a1; March 20, a2; March 25, a3; March 30, a4; April 4, a5) and one control treatment (spring two-water irrigation) were set up with the winter wheat "Heng 0628" as the research object, and analyzed the effects of different treatments on yield and growth characteristics of winter wheat.【Result】The effective rainfall from March 31 toApril 2 was 42.0 mm. Under spring one-water irrigation conditions, SPAD value and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) at the filling period showed first increase and then decrease with the delay of the irrigation time, a3 had the highest SPAD value and Pn in the post-filling period, which were significantly higher than the other treatments (P<0.05), but the difference with CK was not significant. a3 had the highest average filling rate of 1.98 mg/d from 12 d to 27 d after flowering under spring one-water irrigation conditions, and the filling rate was still higher than the other treatments at 27 days after flowering. The aboveground biomass of winter wheat before flowering gradually decreased with the delay of the irrigation time, a3 had significantly higher aboveground biomass at mid-filling period and harvesting period than other treatments, which was not significantly different from CK. the dry matter transfer at the pre-flowering and the dry matter accumulation at the post-flowering of a3 were highest than the other treatments. The number of ears, grains and seed yield per unit area of winter wheat increased and then decreased with the delay of irrigation time, while a3 was significantly higher than the other spring one-water irrigation treatments, and the thousand-grain weight of a3, a4 and a5 were significantly higher than a1 and a2. The water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (WUEI) of a3 were significantly higher than the other spring one-water irrigation treatments, while the WUE of a3 was not significantly different from CK, the WUEI of a3 was significantly higher than CK. 【Conclusion】Considering the effective rainfall time and spring one-water irrigation time, under the condition that there is effective rainfall around the plucking period, the time of spring one-water irrigation in the Haihe plain area should be irrigated 5-8 days earlier according to the rainfall time, which can obtain higher yield and WUE.
Key words:  Once irrigation in spring; Irrigation date; Winter wheat; Grain yield; Growth Characteristics