GENG Yun,LIU Hao,LI Yunfeng,et al.麦后移栽棉蒸发蒸腾规律和作物系数[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
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耿耘, 刘浩, 李云峰, 冯泉清, 余轩, 孙景生
摘要:【目的】探索黄河流域植棉区麦后移栽棉蒸发蒸腾规律及作物系数,为指导当地棉农科学灌溉,发展高效节水农业提供依据。【方法】试验设置地面灌与滴灌2种灌溉方式,利用基于大型称重式蒸渗仪连续监测的麦后移栽棉的蒸发蒸腾量和用Penman-Monteith 公式计算的参考作物蒸发蒸腾量,分析麦后移栽棉的蒸发蒸腾规律,计算麦后移栽棉作物系数。【结果】结果表明,滴灌处理的株高和叶面积指数均明显高于地面灌;受降雨影响,2种灌溉方式下麦后移栽棉的实际蒸发蒸腾量相差不大,滴灌和地面灌处理整个生育期的蒸发蒸腾量分别为420.79 mm 和415.30 mm;在棉花生育前期,地面灌和滴灌处理的土壤蒸发(E)占蒸发蒸腾量(ETc)的比例(E/ETc)变化范围为46.06%-90.23%和42.24%-77.46%,地面灌处理的E/ETc明显高于滴灌;分析气象因子与麦后移栽棉蒸发蒸腾量的相关性发现,日平均温度(T)、总辐射(Rs)和饱和水汽压差(VPD)与麦后移栽棉蒸发蒸腾量均呈显著正相关;麦后移栽棉的作物系数与直播棉花不同,在生长初期已达到较高水平,在生长中期达到最大,生长末期明显下降,地面灌在生长初期、生长中期和生长末期的作物系数分别为0.91、1.23和0.71。滴灌在生长初期、生长中期和生长末期的作物系数分别为0.91、1.26和0.64。在地面灌和滴灌处理下麦后移栽棉Kc均随LAI增大呈先上升后趋于平缓趋势,Kc与LAI 的回归方程分别为Kc=1.663LAI0.0587,R2=0.664和Kc=1.1779LAI0.0611,R2=0.694。【结论】麦后移栽棉的蒸发蒸腾量在苗期、蕾期和花铃期蒸发蒸腾旺盛,进入吐絮期后逐渐降低;麦后移栽棉作物系数在生长初期明显高于FAO-56推荐的Kc值,因此,在制定灌溉制度时,必须根据实际情况予以修正。
关键词:  麦后移栽棉;蒸发蒸腾量;土壤蒸发;作物系数
Study on Evapotranspiration Law and Crop Coefficient of Transplanted Cotton after Wheat
GENG Yun, LIU Hao, LI Yunfeng, FENG Quanqing, YU Xuan, SUN Jingsheng
Institute of Farmland Irrigation,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Key Open Laboratory of Crop Water Demand and Regulation,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas,Xinxiang
Abstract:【Background】Evapotranspiration is an important parameter and basic basis for irrigation and drainage project planning, design and scientific water management in irrigation areas, which has a very important impact on the development and utilization of regional water resources. Wheat cotton interplanting was used to grow cotton in the Yellow River Basin. When planting wheat, cotton rows should be reserved in advance, which affected the wheat yield and led to the contradiction between cotton and grain. With the development of the new technology of cotton industrialized seedling raising, the method of transplanting cotton after wheat is adopted, which is conducive to increasing grain and income in cotton area and wheat area. However, transplanting cotton is different from traditional spring cotton and interplanting cotton, and its water demand characteristics and the distribution ratio of soil evaporation and plant transpiration in cotton growth period are different from spring cotton. Therefore, exploring the evapotranspiration law and crop coefficient of transplanted cotton after wheat has important theoretical significance and practical value for guiding local scientific irrigation.【Objective】The objective is to explore the evapotranspiration law and crop coefficient of transplanted cotton after wheat in the cotton planting area of the Yellow River Basin, so as to provide basis for guiding local cotton farmers to scientifically irrigate and develop efficient and water-saving agriculture.【Method】Ground irrigation and drip irrigation are designed in the test plan. The evapotranspiration of cotton transplanted after wheat was continuously monitored with a large-scale transpiration meter and the reference crop evaporation transpiration of cotton transplanted after wheat in 2020 was calculated with Penman-Monteith formula. The evaporation law of cotton after wheat transplantation was analyzed and the crop coefficient of cotton after wheat transplantation was calculated.【Result】The results showed that plant height and leaf area index under drip irrigation were significantly higher than those under ground irrigation. Influenced by rainfall, the actual evapotranspiration of cotton transplanted after wheat under two irrigation methods was not significantly different. The evapotranspiration of drip irrigation and ground irrigation treatment during the whole growth period was 420.79 mm and 415.30 mm, respectively. In the early stage of cotton growth, the proportion of soil evaporation (E) to evapotranspiration (ETc) of ground irrigation and drip irrigation ranged from 46.06%-90.23% and 42.24%-77.46%, respectively.The E/ETc of ground irrigation was significantly higher than that of drip irrigation. By analyzing the correlation between meteorological factors and evapotranspiration of cotton after wheat transplantation, it was found that daily average temperature (T), total radiation (Rs) and saturated water vapor pressure (VPD) were significantly positively correlated with evaporation of cotton after wheat transplantation. The crop coefficient of transplanted cotton after wheat is different from that of direct seeding cotton. The crop coefficient has reached a high level in the early growth stage, reached the maximum in the middle growth stage, and decreased significantly in the late growth stage. The crop coefficients of ground irrigation in the early growth stage, middle growth stage and late growth stage are 0.91, 1.23and 0.71 respectively. The crop coefficients of drip irrigation in the early growth stage, middle growth stage and late growth stage were 0.91, 1.26 and 0.64 respectively. Under ground irrigation and drip irrigation, Kc of cotton transplanted after wheat showed a trend of first increasing and then flatting with LAI increasing. Under ground irrigation and drip irrigation, the regression equations of Kc and LAI were Kc=1.663LAI0.0587, R2=0.664 and Kc=1.1779LAI0.0611, R2=0.694, respectively.【Conclusion】Evapotranspiration of cotton transplanted after wheat is vigorous at seedling stage, bud stage and flowering boll stage, and decreases gradually after entering flocculation stage. The coefficient of transplanted cotton crop after wheat was significantly higher than the Kc value recommended by FAO-56 in the early stage of growth. Therefore, when formulating the irrigation system, the crop coefficient must be revised according to the actual situation.
Key words:  transplanting cotton after wheat; evapotranspiration; soil evaporation; crop coefficient