引用本文:孙仕军,苏 慧,焦平金,等.暗管埋深与控制排水对农田地下水埋深及排水量影响的研究[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
Sun Shijun,Su Hui,Jiao Pingjin,et al.暗管埋深与控制排水对农田地下水埋深及排水量影响的研究[J].灌溉排水学报,0,():-.
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孙仕军1, 苏 慧1, 焦平金2, 沈 涛3
1.沈阳农业大学;2.中国水利水电科学研究院 北京;3.水利部淮河水利委员会水利水资源安徽省重点实验室
【目的】加强农田排水调控管理,协同治理农业涝渍和干旱灾害,量化浅埋暗管、定水位和动水位控制对地下水埋深和排水量变化的影响。【方法】在亳州市利辛排水试验区埋设3根长200 m、间距30 m的暗管,每个暗管出口连接集水井,集水井内暗管排水量用电子水表计量,在暗管中间的地下水观测井中测定地下水埋深。在上述试验的基础上 采用DRAINMOD模型模拟淮北平原汛期的田间排水过程。【结果】浅埋暗管和定水位控制在抬升地下水埋深和减少排水量上效果接近。动水位和定水位控制在夏季作物生育前期和后期均抬升了地下水埋深和减少了地下排水量;作物生育中期前者的地下水埋深较后者明显降低,日地下排水量明显高于后者,如在丰水年常规暗管布局下动水位的地下水埋深较定水位控制平均降低了13.9 cm,地下排水量较后者增加了2.1倍。动水位控制对地下水埋深和排水量的调节存在时滞效应,常规和深疏暗管布局下改变暗管出口控制高度后仍分别需7 d和12 d才可达预期效果。【结论】适时适量进行动水位控制排水可及时改变地下水埋深和排水量以缓解水旱胁迫。
关键词:  控制排水;浅埋暗管;定水位;动水位;地下水埋深;排水量
Shallow buried tile and controlled drainage change groundwater depth and drainage volume
Sun Shijun1, Su Hui1, Jiao Pingjin2, Shen Tao3
1.College of Water conservancy,Shenyang Agricultural University;2.Department of Irrigation and Drainage,China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research;3.Anhui and Huaihe River Institute of Hydraulic Research Key Laboratory of Water Conservancy and Water Resources of Anhui Province
【Objective】Strengthening farmland drainage regulation and management, controlling agricultural waterlogging and drought disasters synergistically, quantifying the effects of shallow buried pipe, constant water table regulation (CWTR) and dynamic water table regulation (DWTR) on variation in drainage volume and groundwater depth.【Method】Three buried pipes with a length of 200 m and a spacing of 30 m were buried in Lixin Drainage Test Area, Bozhou City, the outlet of each buried pipe was connected to a water collecting well, the drainage volume of the buried pipe in the water collecting well was measured by an electronic water meter, the groundwater depth was measured in the groundwater observation well which was in the middle of the buried pipe. On the basis of the experiment, the DRAINMOD model was used to simulate the farmland drainage process in the Huaibei Plain during the flood season. 【Result】The results showed that shallow buried pipe and CWTR had similar effects in increasing groundwater depth and reducing the drainage volume. The DWTR and CWTR both raised groundwater depth and reduced subsurface drainage in the early and late crop growth period. In the middle crop growth period, the groundwater depth of the DWTR was significantly lower than that of the CWTR, and the daily subsurface drainage volume of the DWTR was significantly higher than that of the CWTR; for the conventional pipe layout in wet year, the average groundwater depth of the DWTR was lower by 13.9 cm than that of the CWTR, and the subsurface drainage volume of the DWTR was higher by 2.1 times than that of the CWTR. There was a lag time effect in the regulation of groundwater depth and drainage in DWTR, 7 d and 12 d were required to achieve the expected result after changing the height of the subsurface pipe outlet in the conventional and deep-sparse pipe layouts. 【Conclusion】The appropriate dynamic water level regulation under controlled drainage can timely change the groundwater depth and drainage to cope with waterlogging and drought stress.
Key words:  controlled drainage; shallow buried tile; constant water table; dynamic water table; groundwater depth; drainage volume