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引用本文:邓忠,翟国亮,王晓森,等.灌溉和施氮策略对滴灌施肥棉花蕾铃脱落的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2017,36(8):.
DENG Zhong,ZHAI Guoliang,WANG Xiaosen,et al.灌溉和施氮策略对滴灌施肥棉花蕾铃脱落的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2017,36(8):.
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灌溉和施氮策略对滴灌施肥棉花蕾铃脱落的影响
邓 忠, 翟国亮, 王晓森, 宗 洁, 冯俊杰, 蔡九茂, 吕谋超
中国农业科学院 农田灌溉研究所/农业部节水灌溉工程重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453002; 河南省节水农业重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453002
摘要:
通过田间小区试验,研究了2种滴灌施氮策略(氮磷钾肥全部滴施、氮肥滴施磷钾肥基施)下3个灌溉定额(3 300、3 900、4 500 m3/hm2)和4个施氮水平(150、225、300、375 kg/hm2)对膜下滴灌棉花蕾铃脱落的影响。结果表明,2种施氮策略下,随生育期延长,棉花蕾铃脱落率逐渐增加,花铃盛期达到最高,花铃后期迅速降低。不同灌溉定额下,在中灌溉定额(3 900 m3/hm2)下蕾铃脱落率最低;不同施氮处理条件下,低氮用量(150 kg/hm2)时蕾铃脱落率显著增加,施氮量300 kg/hm2时蕾铃脱落率均较低;灌溉定额和施氮量过低或过高均会造成蕾铃脱落率显著增加。在氮磷钾肥全部滴施的施氮策略下,理论上灌溉定额3 890.46 m3/hm2、施氮量291.25 kg/hm2时蕾铃脱落率可降至53.60%;氮肥滴施磷钾肥基施的施氮策略下,理论上灌溉定额3 805.24 m3/hm2、施氮量288.76 kg/hm2时蕾铃脱落率可降至49.12%。总体上,氮肥滴施磷钾肥基施施氮策略较氮磷钾肥全部滴施施氮策略具有较低的蕾铃脱落率。
关键词:  棉花; 施氮策略; 滴灌; 蕾铃脱落率
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Application Schedule of N-P-K in Drip Fertigation Affects Abscission of Cotton Bolls
DENG Zhong, ZHAI Guoliang, WANG Xiaosen, ZONGJie, FENG Junjie, CAI Jiumao, LYU Mouchao
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ Key Laboratory of Water-saving Irrigation Project, Ministry of Agriculture, Xinxiang 453002, China; Key Laboratory of Water-saving Agriculture of Henan Province, Xinxiang 453002, China
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a field experiment aiming to investigate the impact of different drip fertigation schedules on abscission of cotton bolls. We considered three irrigation amounts, 3 300, 3 900 and 4 500 m3/hm2, and four N application rates, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg/hm2. The N was either applied with P-K as topdressing fertilizer, or applied as topdressing with the drip irrigation while the P-K were used as base fertilizer. The results showed that the boll abscission increased first, peaking at the boll setting stage, and then decreased rapidly at the flowering stage under both N application methods. The abscission rate atirrigation of 3 900 m3/hm2 was the lowest in comparison with others. When the N application was 150 kg/hm2, the abscission rate of the cotton buds and bolls increased significantly under different N applications. The abscission was the lowest when N application was 300 kg/hm2, increasing when the irrigation amount and nitrogen application were either too low or too high. When N was applied with P-K as topdressing fertilizer at the rate of 291.25 kg/hm2 and the irrigation amount was 3 890.46 m3/hm2, the boll abscission was 53.60%, while under the same water and N applications, applying N-P-K as topdressing with the drip irrigation decreased the abscission by 49.12%. In summary, applying N with P-K as topdressing was more efficient in reducing the abscission compared with applying N together with the drip irrigation by using P-K as base fertilizer.
Key words:  cotton; nitrogen application strategies; drip irrigation; boll abscission