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引用本文:张笑培,周新国,王静丽,等.耕作方式对豫东夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2017,36(9):.
ZHANG Xiaopei,ZHOU Xinguo,WANG Jingli,et al.耕作方式对豫东夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2017,36(9):.
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耕作方式对豫东夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响
张笑培, 周新国, 王静丽, 樊向阳,, 黄仲冬, 杨慎骄, 王和洲
中国农业科学院 农田灌溉研究所, 河南 新乡 453002; 河南商丘农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站,河南 商丘 476000; 河南农业大学, 郑州 452000
摘要:
东地区夏玉米生长季恰逢雨季,季节性强降水经常导致农田积水,使玉米生长受到涝渍灾害威胁,为探索当地夏玉米的适宜栽培管理模式,试验设置播前翻耕、深松和旋耕3种耕作处理,并以当地种植习惯的免耕贴茬播种为对照,通过田间小区试验重点研究了不同耕作方式对农田土壤水分、夏玉米农艺性状、籽粒产量及水分利用效率的影响。结果表明,与免耕贴茬播种处理相比,翻耕和深松处理均能在强降雨后有效降低表层土壤含水率,增加夏玉米生长中后期的株高和叶面积;翻耕和深松处理籽粒产量分别提高了26.55%和19.67%;翻耕和深松处理水分利用效率分别提高了15.37%和9.69%,旋耕处理降低了3.45%。综合考虑夏玉米籽粒产量、水分利用效率等因素,翻耕和深松措施是适宜于豫东地区夏玉米高产的栽培模式。
关键词:  耕作方式; 土壤水分; 夏玉米; 水分利用效率
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Impact of Tillage on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Summer Maize in Eastern Henan Province
ZHANG Xiaopei, ZHOU Xinguo, WANG Jingli, FAN Xiangyang,HUANG Zhongdong, YANG Shenjiao, WANG Hezhou
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang 453002, China; National Agro-ecological System Observation and Research Station of Shangqiu, Shangqiu 476000, China; Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
Abstract:
Summer maize grows in rainy season in Eastern Henan Province and excessive seasonal rainfall could result in waterlogging, detrimentally impacting the plant growth. In attempts to find suitable cultivating and agronomical methods for the summer maize, a field experiment was conducted in this paper to investigate the effect of different tillages on soil water, plant traits, grain yield, and water use efficiency. Four tillageswere examined: plowing (FT), sub-soiling (ST), rotary tillage (RT) and no tillage (CK), before sowing. The results showed that compared with CK, FT and ST substantially reduced the soil water content in the top 0~20cm soil after heavy rainfalls, and as a result, the plant height and LAI of the maize increased during the middle and late growing stages. FT and ST increased the grain yield by 26.55% and 19.67%, and water use efficiency by 15.37% and 9.69%, respectively, compared with CK. In contrast, RT reduced the yield by 3.45%. In summary, FT and ST are more efficientto alleviate waterlogging occurring in the summer maize filed in Eastern Henan Province.
Key words:  tillage management; soil water content; summer maize; water use efficiency