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引用本文:张传更,高 阳,张立明,等.水分管理措施对施用有机肥麦田土壤酶活性和微生物群落结构的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2018,37(2):38-44.
ZHANG Chuangeng,GAO Yang,ZHANG Liming,et al.水分管理措施对施用有机肥麦田土壤酶活性和微生物群落结构的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2018,37(2):38-44.
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水分管理措施对施用有机肥麦田土壤酶活性和微生物群落结构的影响
张传更, 高 阳, 张立明, 司转运, 李 双
中国农业科学院 农田灌溉研究所/农业部作物需水与调控重点实验室, 河南 新乡 453002;辽宁省葫芦岛市水文局, 辽宁 葫芦岛 125000
摘要:
【目的】研究不同水分管理措施对施用有机肥麦田土壤微生物群落结构和土壤酶活性的影响。【方法】通过田间试验,分析了充分供水和水分胁迫条件下施加有机肥与常规施肥下土壤微生物群落结构和土壤酶活性变化。【结果】在相同施肥处理下,充分供水处理较水分胁迫处理能大幅提高土壤蔗糖酶、纤维素酶、脲酶、过氧化氢酶和碱性磷酸酶活性;同一水分条件下,施加有机肥可以提高蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶和纤维素酶活性,而对脲酶无显著影响;有机肥在充分供水条件下才可以提高过氧化氢酶活性。Shannon和Simpson指数表明,T1与T2处理的群落多样性要高于T3和T4处理。T1处理的丰富度指数为31,分别比T2、T3和T4处理提高了15.01%、40.90%、72.22%。主成分分析表明,处理间的微生物群落结构差异明显,并且水分处理影响小麦根际微生物种群结构。根据LEFSE分析,厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、黏球菌目(Myxococcales)和鞘脂杆菌目(Sphingobacteriales)是对T1和T2处理起重要作用的物种类群,绿弯菌门(Chloroflexi)是T3和T4处理中能起重要作用的物种类群。【结论】在充分供水下施用有机肥可提高土壤中蔗糖酶、碱性磷酸酶、纤维素酶和过氧化氢酶活性及土壤微生物多样性;充分供水是保证有机肥显著提高麦田土壤酶活性和微生物多样性的前提,尤其是在作物需水和需肥的关键期。
关键词:  有机肥; 水分胁迫; 土壤酶活性; 微生物多样性; 微生物群落结构; 主成分分析; LEFSE分析
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2017.0221
分类号:
基金项目:
Effects of Water Management on Soil Enzyme Activitiesand Microbial Community Structure in Wheat Fields with Organic Fertilizer Application
ZHANG Chuangeng, GAO Yang, ZHANG Liming, SI Zhuanyun, LI Shuang
Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang 453002,China Huludao Municipal Bureau of Hydrology, Huludao 125000,China
Abstract:
【Objective】 Study the effects of different water management measures on soil microbial community structure and soil enzyme activities in wheat field with organic manure. 【Method】 The changes of soil microbial community structure and soil enzyme activities under different fertilization treatment of full water supply and under water stress were analyzed in the field experiment. 【Result】 The activities of sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, cellulase, catalase and urease with sufficient water were significantly higher than those of the other treatment with water stress under the same fertilization, the activities of sucrase, alkaline phosphatase and cellulase could be significantly improved by the application of organic fertilizer, and the application of organic fertilizer had no significant effect on urease under the same water condition; the activity of catalase was enhanced by organic fertilizer under the condition of sufficient water supply. According to the Shannon and Simpson index, the community diversity of T1 and T2 was higher than that of T3 and T4. According to the Richness index, the richness of T1 was 31, and was increased by 15.01%, 40.90% and 72.22% than that of T2, T3 and T4, respectively. The principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structure of different treatments was significantly different, and the water treatment had some effects on the rhizosphere microbial community structure actively. According to the LEFSE analysis, phylum Firmicutes, order Myxococcales and order Sphingobacteriales had significant effect on T2 and T1; phylum Chloroflexi had significant effect on T3 and T4. 【Conclusion】 Application of organic fertilizer with full water supply could significantly improve the activities of sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, cellulase and catalase and soil microbial diversity under the conditions of this experiment; and the sufficient irrigation is the premise to improve the soil enzyme activity and microbial diversity in wheat field, especially in the critical period of crop water and fertilizer requirement.
Key words:  organic fertilizer; water stress; soil enzyme activities; microbial diversity; microbial community structure; PCA; LEFSE analysis