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引用本文:姚群英,刘 强,巩敬锦.陇中旱地春小麦产量对主要气象因子变化和氮肥施用的响应[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(11):74-82.
YAO Qunying,LIU Qiang,GONG Jingjin.陇中旱地春小麦产量对主要气象因子变化和氮肥施用的响应[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(11):74-82.
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陇中旱地春小麦产量对主要气象因子变化和氮肥施用的响应
姚群英,刘 强,巩敬锦
1.甘肃农业大学 信息科学技术学院,兰州 730070; 2.中国农业大学 资源与环境学院,北京 100193
摘要:
【目的】探究气候变化和氮肥施用对旱地春小麦产量的耦合效应。【方法】基于研究区1970—2017年历史气象数据以及对气候变化敏感的免耕覆盖耕作方式下2016—2017年春小麦生育期实测数据及2005—2009、2013—2015年田间实测产量数据,通过APSIM进行了5×5×5×5次日平均温度、日平均辐射量、CO2质量分数、氮肥施用量单独变化及共同变化的模拟试验,研究不同降水年型主要气象因子和氮肥施用量对旱地春小麦产量的影响。【结果】①APSIM模型对试验区春小麦生育持续天数模拟效果为R2=0.98、NRMSE=5%;春小麦产量模拟效果为R2=0.91、NRMSE=12%、D=0.95,故APSIM来模拟免耕覆盖耕作方式下的旱地春小麦的生长发育及产量效果较好。②3种降水年型下,选定气象因子和氮肥施用量的单独作用及交互作用均能显著影响旱地春小麦产量;通过调控气象因子和氮肥施用量,在枯水年取得的增产效应最显著。③相同试验条件下,丰水年春小麦产量最高且最稳定。【结论】降水量的增加不仅能提高旱地春小麦产量,同时还将影响其他气象因子对旱地春小麦产量的作用效果和作用性质并提高氮肥施用对春小麦产量的增产效应。
关键词:  旱地春小麦;气候变化;APSIM
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2023183
分类号:
基金项目:
Influence of Meteorological Factors and Nitrogen Fertilization on Spring Wheat Yield in the Longzhong Dryland Region
YAO Qunying, LIU Qiang, GONG Jingjin
1. Gansu Agricultural University, College of Information Science and Technology, Lanzhou 730070, China; 2. China Agricultural University, College of Resources and Environment, Beijing 100193, China
Abstract:
【Objective】 Longzhong is a region located over the transitional zone between the Sichuan Basin and the Loess Plateau; it has a unique climate and agriculture. This paper investigates the interactive impact of meteorological factors and nitrogen fertilization on yield of spring wheat in dryland in the region.【Method】The study was based on the APSIM model, using meteorological data measured from 1970 to 2017, crop growth data measured from 2016 to 2017 in zero-till mulched fields, and grain yield data measured between 2005—2009 and 2013—2015. We simulated the response of grain yield of the spring wheat to changes in next-day average temperature, average daily radiation, CO2 mass fraction, nitrogen fertilization, both individually or in combination.【Result】① The simulated growing duration and grain yield agreed well with the ground-true data with R2=0.98 and NRMSE=5% for the former; and R2=0.91, NRMSE=12% and D=0.95 for the latter. ② For the three precipitation scenarios we simulated, changing meteorological factors and nitrogen fertilization individually or in combination both had a significant impact on grain yield, especially in dry years. ③ When other conditions were the same, grain yield reached its peak and showed greater stability during wet years.【Conclusion】Elevated precipitation not only boosted grain yield but also played a pivotal role in influencing the effects of other meteorological factors on crop growth and enhancing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer.
Key words:  dryland spring wheat; climate change; APSIM