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引用本文:赵经华,袁如芯,王金茂,等.不同灌水处理对春玉米土壤水分、耗水特征及产量的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(5):1-7.
ZHAO Jinghua,YUAN Ruxin,WANG Jinmao,et al.不同灌水处理对春玉米土壤水分、耗水特征及产量的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(5):1-7.
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不同灌水处理对春玉米土壤水分、耗水特征及产量的影响
赵经华,袁如芯,王金茂,孟新梅,杨庭瑞
1.新疆农业大学 水利与土木工程学院,乌鲁木齐 830052;2.新疆兵团勘测设计院集团股份有限公司, 乌鲁木齐 830000;3.新疆水利工程安全与水灾害防治重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830052; 4.和布克赛尔县水利局,新疆 塔城 834499
摘要:
【目的】探究不同灌水定额对春玉米全生育期耗水特征及产量的影响,优化克拉玛依地区春玉米节水灌溉制度,以提高当地水分利用效率。【方法】于2021年5—9月在克拉玛依农业综合开发区开展春玉米田间试验,设置6个灌水处理W1(225 m3/hm2)、W2(300 m3/hm2)、W3(375 m3/hm2)、W4(450 m3/hm2)、W5(525 m3/hm2)、W6(600 m3/hm2),探究不同灌水定额对春玉米耗水特征及产量的影响。【结果】①各生育期不同灌水处理0~100 cm土层土壤含水率随土层深度增加呈“增-减-增”的变化趋势。W5处理在喇叭口期、抽雄散粉期、乳熟期、完熟期较W1、W2、W3、W4、W6处理0~100 cm土层土壤贮水量平均增加了2.35%~9.11%、0.21%~4.37%、0.39%~1.79%、0.60%~4.48%。②完熟期W5处理百粒质量显著高于W1处理和W2处理,但与W3、W4、W6处理无显著性差异。W5处理穗粒数较其他处理显著提高10.49%~36.01%,穗长较其他处理显著提高8.31%~27.12%。③综合评判模型计算得出W5处理(525 m3/hm2)综合评价指数最高。【结论】因此,全生育期灌水10次,灌水定额为525 m3/hm2是克拉玛依地区最优灌水处理。
关键词:  土壤含水率;耗水特征;产量;春玉米;灌水定额优化
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2023501
分类号:
基金项目:
Effects of irrigation amount on soil water, water consumption and yield of spring maize in Northwestern China
ZHAO Jinghua, YUAN Ruxin, WANG Jinmao, MENG Xinmei, YANG Tingrui
1. College of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China; 2. Xinjiang Corps Survey and Design Institute Group Co., Ltd, Urumqi 830000, China; 3. Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Safety and Water Disaster Prevention, Urumqi 830052, China; 4. Hebukesaier County Water Conservancy Bureau, Tacheng 834499, China
Abstract:
【Objective】 The production of spring maize in Northwestern China relies on irrigation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the impact of irrigation amount on the yield, water consumption of the maize, as well as soil water dynamics.【Method】The field experiment was conducted from may to september 2021 at the Karamay Agricultural Comprehensive Development Zone. It comprised six treatments by irrigating the maize at: 225 m3/hm2 (W1), 300 m3/hm2 (W2), 375 m3/hm2 (W3), 450 m3/hm2 (W4), 525 m3/hm2 (W5), and 600 m3/hm2 (W6). In each treatment, we measured the spatiotemporal change in soil water, as well as ultimate yield and water consumption of the crop. 【Result】 ① Regardless of irrigation amounts, soil water content increased with soil depth first and then declined, followed by another increase in the soil depth from 0 to 100 cm. Compared with the other five treatments, W5 increased soil water storage in the 0-100 cm of soil by 2.35%-9.11%, 0.21%-4.37%, 0.39%-1.79%, 0.60%-4.48% at trumpet stage, tasseling stage, milk stage, and full maturity stage, respectively. ② At maturity stage, the 100-grain weight in W5 was significantly higher than that in W1 and W2, but was comparable to that in W3, W4 and W6. W5 also increased the grain number per spike by 10.49%-36.01% and the spike length by 8.31%-27.12%, compared with the other five treatments. ③ The results obtained from of the analysis of the comprehensive evaluation model showed the comprehensive evaluation index of W5 was 525 m3/hm2, the highest among all treatments.【Conclusion】 Irrigating10 times, with the total irrigation amount being 525 m3/hm2 during the whole growing season is optimal for spring maize production in the Karamay region in Northwestern China.
Key words:  soil water content; characteristics of water expend; yield; spring corn; irrigation water quota optimization