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引用本文:陈海情,黄 超,刘栩辰,等.灌水方式和施肥组合对冬小麦生长及肥料利用影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(1):31-38.
CHEN Haiqing,HUANG Chao,LIU Xuchen,et al.灌水方式和施肥组合对冬小麦生长及肥料利用影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(1):31-38.
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灌水方式和施肥组合对冬小麦生长及肥料利用影响
陈海情,黄 超,刘栩辰,巩文军,孙蒙强,张雅娟,王兴鹏,刘战东
1.中国农业科学院 农田灌溉研究所/农业农村部作物需水与调控重点实验室,河南 新乡 453002; 2.塔里木大学 水利与建筑工程学院,新疆 阿拉尔 843300; 3.河南省焦作市广利灌区管理局,河南 沁阳 454550
摘要:
【目的】研究滴灌和畦灌2种灌水方式下不同施肥组合对冬小麦产量和肥料利用的影响,探寻冬小麦最佳灌水和施肥组合。【方法】试验于2020—2021年在中国农业科学院新乡综合试验基地进行,设置滴灌(D)与畦灌(Q)2个灌水方式和氮磷(NP)、氮钾(NK)、氮磷钾(NPK)、磷钾(PK)4种施肥组合,共8个处理(处理简称分别为D-NP、D-NK、D-NPK、D-PK、Q-NP、Q-NK、Q-NPK、Q-PK),分析不同灌水和施肥组合下冬小麦生长发育、产量和肥料利用等变化规律。【结果】滴灌和畦灌条件下,PK处理的冬小麦株高和叶面积指数较NPK处理均显著降低,且冬小麦穗长、穗粒数和千粒质量均显著降低,畦灌处理穗粒数高于滴灌处理,而千粒质量低于滴灌处理;滴灌条件下,与NPK处理相比,PK处理产量降低25.0%,而NP处理和NK处理产量差异不显著;滴灌条件下氮肥、磷肥、钾肥利用率分别比畦灌高出49.48%、4.01%、18.07%,且滴灌条件下氮肥、磷肥、钾肥偏生产力显著高于畦灌;滴灌下冬小麦收获时土壤硝态氮残留量低于畦灌,且Q-NK处理土壤硝态氮残留量较Q-NPK处理降低18.7%。【结论】综合分析,D-NK处理有利于提高冬小麦肥料利用和减少收获期土壤硝态氮的残留量,因此该地区在冬小麦滴灌水分一体化施肥时可适当降低磷肥的使用。
关键词:  冬小麦;滴灌;水肥一体化;肥料利用率;硝态氮残留
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2022217
分类号:
基金项目:
Combined Effects of Irrigation and Fertilization on Growth and Fertilizer Utilization of Winter Wheat
CHEN Haiqing, HUANG Chao, LIU Xuchen, GONG Wenjun, SUN Mengqiang, ZHANG Yajuan, WANG Xingpeng, LIU Zhandong
1. Farmland Irrigation Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Water Requirement and Regulation, Xinxiang 453002, China; 2. College of Water Resource and Architecture Engineering, Tarim University, Alar 843300, China; 3. Henan Jiaozuo Guangli Irrigation District Administration Bureau, Qinyang 454550, China
Abstract:
【Objective】Water and nutrients are interactive in their uptakes by crops. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how fertilization and irrigation combine to modulate winter wheat yield and fertilizer utilization. 【Method】The experiment was conducted from 2020 to 2021 at a winter wheat field in the Xinxiang Comprehensive Experimental Base of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. It consisted of a drip irrigation (D) and a border irrigation (Q); each irrigation had four fertilization treatments: nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), nitrogen and potassium (NK), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and phosphorus and potassium (PK). In each treatment, we measured growth, yield and fertilizer utilization of the crop. 【Result】 Regardless of the irrigation methods, PM increased plant height and leaf area index while reducing spike length, spike grain number and thousand-grain weight significantly, compared to NPK. The grain number per spike in border irrigation was higher than that in drip irrigation, while the thousand-grain weight in border irrigation was lower than that in drip irrigation. Under drip irrigation, the yield of PK was 25.0% lower than that of NPK, while the difference in yield between NP and NK was not significant. Drip irrigation increased utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers by 49.48%, 4.01% and 18.07%, respectively, compared to border irrigation, and it also increased the productivity of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Soil nitrate residuals at harvest under drip irrigation were lower than those under border irrigation, and soil nitrate residues in Q+NK were 18.7% lower than that in Q+NPK. 【Conclusion】Comprehensive analysis shows D+NK is optimal to improve fertilizer utilization and reduce residual soil nitrate at harvest. It also promotes the use of indigenous phosphorus by the crop thereby improving phosphorus use efficiency.
Key words:  winter wheat; drip irrigation; water-fertilizer integration; fertilizer use efficiency; nitrate-N residues