引用本文:郭 璇,关小康,温鹏飞,等.不同种植模式和灌溉方式对麦棉产量、品质及经济效益的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(1):39-46.
GUO Xuan,GUAN Xiaokang,WEN Pengfei,et al.不同种植模式和灌溉方式对麦棉产量、品质及经济效益的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2023,42(1):39-46.
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郭 璇,关小康,温鹏飞,王同朝,张 昊,汪顺生,仝 浩
1.河南农业大学,郑州 450046;2.华北水利水电大学,郑州 450046
【目的】揭示种植模式和灌溉方式对冬小麦和夏棉花(以下简称麦棉)产量、品质及综合经济效益的影响,为黄河流域麦棉两熟区的种植模式和灌溉方式的科学制定提供理论依据。【方法】基于裂区设计开展大田试验,将麦棉种植模式设定为主区,主区包含麦棉套种和麦后移栽2个水平,副区为灌溉方式,包含畦灌、微喷带灌溉和地表滴灌3个水平,共6个处理。【结果】相比麦棉套种模式,麦后移栽模式能够提升冬小麦叶面积指数(LAI)和产量,提高冬小麦净收入;虽然麦后移栽模式下的棉花籽棉产量降低了5.64%,但麦棉合计净收入比麦棉套种模式提高了8.64%。相比畦灌和微喷带灌溉,地表滴灌能够显著提高麦棉株高、LAI、产量和经济效益,地表滴灌条件下的麦棉合计净收入比畦灌、微喷带灌溉分别提高36.01%和10.10%。麦后移栽和地表滴灌组合下的麦棉合计净收入最高,麦棉合计净收入最高达到15 924.9元/hm2。【结论】麦后移栽和地表滴灌分别是适宜于黄河流域麦棉两熟区的最佳种植模式与灌溉方式。
关键词:  麦棉套种;麦后移栽;畦灌;微喷带灌溉;地表滴灌;净收入
Effect of Irrigation and Planting Patterns on Yield, Quality and Economic Return of Winter Wheat-cotton Cropping System
GUO Xuan, GUAN Xiaokang, WEN Pengfei, WANG Tongchao, ZHANG Hao, WANG Shunsheng, TONG Hao
1. Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China; 2. North China University of Water Resources and Hydropower, Zhengzhou 450046, China
【Objective】Winter wheat-cotton rotation is a common cultivation in Yellow River Basin in China, but they have an overlapped growing period. How to plant the cotton to make most of above- and below-ground resources is an issue that is not well understood. This paper aims to investigate how planting and irrigation combine to modulate growth, yields, quality and economic return of the two crops.【Method】The experiment was conducted in a field, with the cotton either directly drilled before the wheat was harvested or transplanted from a seedling bed after wheat harvest. We compared three irrigations: border irrigation, micro-sprinkling hose irrigation and surface drip irrigation. 【Result】 Transplantation improved leaf area index (LAI) and yield of the winter wheat, as well as the net income of winter wheat compared with directly drilling, despite a 5.64% reduction in cotton yield; overall, its total net income was 8.64% higher than the directly drilling. Compared with border irrigation and micro-sprinkling hose irrigation, surface drip irrigation significantly improved the plant height, LAI, yield and economic return of the two crops. The total net income of surface drip irrigation was 36.01% and 10.10% higher than that of border irrigation and micro-sprinkling hose irrigation, respectively. Transplantation combined with surface drip irrigation gave the highest net income at 15 924.9 yuan/hm2.【Conclusion】Transplanting cotton seedling after harvesting the winter wheat combined with surface drip irrigation reduces their competition for resources and is therefore optimal for wheat-cotton rotation in the Yellow River Basin.
Key words:  wheat cotton interplanting; transplanting cotton after wheat harvest; border irrigation; micro-sprinkling hose irrigation; surface drip irrigation; net profit