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引用本文:邵 云,王鹏飞,安佳慧,等.不同耕作方式和前茬作物对冬小麦 水肥利用效率及产量影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(6):1-9.
SHAO Yun,WANG Pengfei,AN Jiahui,et al.不同耕作方式和前茬作物对冬小麦 水肥利用效率及产量影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(6):1-9.
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不同耕作方式和前茬作物对冬小麦 水肥利用效率及产量影响
邵 云,王鹏飞,安佳慧,孟 晔,陈海情,刘栩辰,刘战东,高 阳,马守田
1.河南师范大学 生命科学学院,河南 新乡 453000; 2.中国农业科学院 农田灌溉研究所,河南 新乡 453002
摘要:
【目的】探讨不同耕作方式和前茬作物对冬小麦土壤养分、产量及水肥利用效率的影响。【方法】设置2个主处理:旋耕(RT)和免耕(NT),2个副处理:玉米前茬(MW)和大豆前茬(SW),共4个处理,分别记为RTMW、RTSW、NTMW、NTSW,研究不同耕作方式和前茬作物对冬小麦土壤养分、水肥利用效率及产量的影响。【结果】同一前茬作物下,免耕处理土壤含水率高于旋耕处理;同一耕作方式下,玉米前茬处理土壤含水率高于大豆前茬;冬小麦季各处理有机碳量、全氮量、速效磷量、速效钾量、铵态氮量、硝态氮量均随土层深度增加而降低。0~50 cm土层,NTSW处理均有利于冬小麦麦田土壤有机碳、全氮、硝态氮量的积累,较RTMW处理分别提高了4.14%~13.54%、35.51%~54.44%、55.75%~112%;10~50 cm土层,RTMW处理后茬麦田速效磷、速效钾量较高;0~50 cm土层,RTSW处理后茬麦田铵态氮量最高,较RTMW处理高13.39%~20.64%;NTSW处理穗数、穗粒数、千粒质量显著高于其他处理,且冬小麦产量也高于其他处理,较RTMW处理增产16.62%;NTSW处理水分利用效率及氮磷钾利用效率均最高。【结论】NTSW处理有利于冬小麦田的养分积累,且水肥利用效率最高,增产效果较好。
关键词:  旋耕;免耕;前茬作物;土壤养分;水肥利用效率;产量
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2023584
分类号:
基金项目:
Effect of tillage and preceding crops on yield, water and fertilizer use efficiency of winter wheat
SHAO Yun, WANG Pengfei, AN Jiahui, MENG Ye, CHEN Haiqing, LIU Xuchen, LIU Zhandong, GAO Yang, MA Shoutian
1. College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453000, China; 2. Institute of Farmland Irrigation, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xinxiang 453002, China
Abstract:
【Objective】Winter wheat in Northern China is often rotated with other crops which are expected to have a legacy effect. This paper aims to study the effect of different tillage and preceding crops on soil nutrients, yield and water use efficiency of the winter wheat.【Method】The field experiment consisted of a rotary tillage (RT) and a no-tillage (NT). The preceding crops for each tillage were corn (MW) or soybean (SW). During the experiment, we measured the changes in soil nutrients, soil water content, water and fertilizer use efficiency, and yield of the wheat.【Result】For the same preceding crop, non-tillage increased soil water content compared to rotary tillage; under the same tillage, soil water content with maize as the preceding crop was higher than that with soybean as the preceding crop. In all treatments, soil nutrients decreased with soil depth. In the 0-50 cm soil layer, NTSW increased soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen by 4.14%-13.54%, 35.51%-54.44% and 55.75%-112%, respectively, compared to the RTMW. RTMW had the highest available phosphorus and potassium in the 10-50 cm soil layer. The RTSW had the highest ammonium nitrogen in the 0-50 cm soil layer, 13.39%-20.64% more than that in the RTMW. The winter wheat in NTSW had the highest spike numbers, spikelet numbers, thousand-grain weight; and its grain yield was 16.62% higher than that of RTMW. The NTSW had the highest water use efficiency, 8.67% more than that of RTMW. The NTSW had the highest nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium use efficiency.【Conclusion】The NTSW facilitated nutrient accumulation in the winter wheat field. It had the highest water and fertilizer use efficiency and increased grain yields the most as a result.
Key words:  rotary tillage; no-tillage; preceding crop; soil nutrient; water and fertilizer use efficiency; crop yield