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引用本文:殷 姿,王兴鹏,张 磊,等.不同灌水定额对2种油莎豆生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(6):43-51.
YIN Zi,WANG Xingpeng,ZHANG Lei,et al.不同灌水定额对2种油莎豆生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响[J].灌溉排水学报,2024,43(6):43-51.
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不同灌水定额对2种油莎豆生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响
殷 姿,王兴鹏,张 磊,赵丰年,李明发,王洪博
1.塔里木大学 水利与建筑工程学院,新疆 阿拉尔 843300;2.塔里木大学 自治区教育厅普通高等学校现代农业重点实验室,新疆 阿拉尔 843300;3.中国农业科学院西部农业研究中心,新疆 昌吉 831100; 4.塔里木大学 塔里木绿洲农业教育部重点实验室,新疆 阿拉尔 843300;5.农业农村部西北绿洲节水农业重点实验室,新疆 石河子 832000;6.新疆生产建设兵团第一师水文水资源管理中心,新疆 阿拉尔 843300
摘要:
【目的】探究南疆地区灌水定额对不同品种油莎豆生理生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响,制定科学合理的灌溉制度。【方法】采用河南圆粒(HY)和内蒙古圆粒(NY)2个油莎豆品种,设置W1(18 mm)、W2(27 mm)、W3(36 mm)和W4(45 mm)4个灌水定额,分析土壤储水量、各生育期的株高、分蘖数、光合特性、产量、耗水量和水分利用效率变化。【结果】2个品种油莎豆土壤储水量和耗水量均随灌水定额增大而增加,W4处理储水量和耗水量较W1处理分别增加24.84%、60.57%(HY)和18.46%、55.61%(NY)。HY油莎豆株高、分蘖数、净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、叶片蒸腾速率(Tr)和产量均随灌水定额增大呈显著增加趋势(P<0.05),W4处理较W1处理分别增加24.60%、15.11%、28.14%、34.86%、40.49%和13.92%,胞间CO2浓度(Ci)随灌水定额增大呈减小趋势,W1处理较高。而NY油莎豆株高、分蘖数、Pn、Gs、Tr和产量均随灌水定额增大呈先增加后减小趋势,W2处理较W1处理分别增加26.07%、20.26%、19.69%、38.38%、44.92%和20.83%,Ci随灌水定额增大呈先减小后增大趋势,W2处理较低。不同处理油莎豆水分利用效率和灌溉水利用效率均随灌水定额增大呈减小趋势,W1处理显著优于其他处理。主成分分析表明,净光合速率和水分利用效率可作为油莎豆水分和品种筛选的指标。【结论】河南圆粒灌水定额为45 mm,内蒙古圆粒灌水定额为27 mm时更有利于油莎豆的生长,提升产量和水分利用效率。
关键词:  油莎豆;灌水定额和品种;生长生理;产量;水分利用效率
DOI:10.13522/j.cnki.ggps.2023545
分类号:
基金项目:
The effect of irrigation amounts on growth, yield and water use efficiency of different varieties of tigernut
YIN Zi, WANG Xingpeng, ZHANG Lei, ZHAO Fengnian, LI Mingfa, WANG Hongbo
1. College of Water Hydraulic and Architectural Engineering, Tarim University, Alaer 843300, China; 2. Modern Agricultural Engineering Key Laboratory at Universities of Education Department of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Tarim University, Alaer 843300, China; 3. Western Agricultural Research Center, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changji 831100, China; 4. Key Laboratory of Tarim Oasis Agriculture, Ministry of Education, Tarim University, Alaer 843300, China; 5. Key Laboratory of Northwest Oasis Water-saving Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Shihezi 832000, China; 6. Hydrology and Water Resources Management Center of the First Division of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Alaer 843300, China
Abstract:
【Objective】Tiger nut is a cash crop in southern Xinjiang and its production relies on irrigation. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of irrigation amounts on physiological traits, yield, and water use efficiency of different varieties of tiger nuts.【Method】The experiment studied two varieties: the Henan Round Grain (HY) and the Inner Mongolia Round Grain (NY), each irrigated by 18 mm (W1), 27 mm (W2), 36 mm (W3), and 45 mm (W4) of water, respectively. In each treatment, we measured the changes in soil water storage, plant height, tiller numbers, photosynthetic traits, yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of the plants at different growing stages.【Result】Soil water storage and water consumption of both varieties increased with irrigation amount. Compared to W1, W4 increased average soil water storage and water consumption of the plants by 24.84% and 60.57% for the HY, and 18.46% and 55.61% for the NY, respectively. The plant height, tiller numbers, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr) and the yield of HY increased with irrigation amount (P<0.05), peaking in W2 with increases of 24.60%, 15.11%, 28.14%, 34.86%, 40.49% and 13.92% compared to W1. Intercellular carbon content (Ci) decreased with increasing irrigation amount. With the increase in irrigation amount, the plant height, tiller numbers, Pn, Gs, Tr, and the yield of NY all increased first followed by a decline; their associated values in W2 were 26.07%, 20.26%, 19.69%, 38.38%, 44.92% and 20.83% higher than those in W1. On average, Ci decreased with irrigation amount, being lowest in W2. Water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency of both varieties decreased with irrigation amount. Principal component analysis showed the net photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency can be used as indicators for variety selection.【Conclusion】The optimal irrigation amounts for the varieties HY and NY are 45 mm and 27 mm respectively, which can promote healthy growth, improve yields, and enhance water use efficiency of the plants.
Key words:  Cyperus esculentus L; irrigation quota and variety; growth physiology; yield; water use efficiency